Physiology of Concept 10 10 Training

Physiology
of Concept 10 10 Training

An objective of Concept 10 10 resistance training is to create more
tension in a muscle for a given workload. This is accomplished by decreasing
the speed of movement. The amount of force or tension a muscle can develop
during a muscle action is substantially affected by the rate of muscle
shortening (concentric phase) or lengthening (eccentric phase) (Smith, Weiss,
and Lehmkuhl, 1995). The amount of tension generated in a muscle is related to
the number of contracting fibers. Each muscle fiber (or muscle cell) contains
up to several hundred to several thousand myofibrils, which are composed of
myosin (thick) and actin (thin) protein filaments (Guyton and Hall, 1996). The
repeating units of thick and thin filaments within each myofibril comprise the
basic contractile unit, the sarcomere. In a muscle fiber, the slower the rate
at which the actin and myosin filaments slide past each other, the greater the
number of links or cross-bridges that can be formed between the filaments
(Smith, Weiss, and Lehmkuhl, 1995). The more cross-bridges there are per unit
of time, the more tension created. Thus at slow muscle action speeds, a higher
number of cross-bridges can be formed, which leads to a maximum amount of
tension for a given workload.

The tension in a muscle is related to the number of motor units firing and to
the frequency with which impulses are conveyed to the motor neurons (Berger,
1982). Physiologically, using a slower speed protocol requires the activation
of more muscle fibers and an increase in the frequency of firing in order to
maintain a force necessary to lift a given workload (Smith, Weiss, and
Lehmkuhl, 1995). This provides stimulation for muscle strength development. The
initial strength development involves neurological adaptations (stimulation of
muscle fibers through increased firing and recruitment) followed by muscle
hypertrophy (Enoka, 1986). In muscle hypertrophy, an increase in protein
synthesis results in a multiplication of myofibrils within muscle fibers
leading to an enlargement of the cross-sectional area of the muscle (Berger,
1982). There is also a corresponding increase in the number of actin and myosin
filaments, which subsequently increases the capacity for cross-bridge formation
(Guyton and Hall, 1996).

Training pace

Training frequency

Already during the 1970’es Arthur Jones (the founder of Nautilus and later on the MedX) demonstrated that one set to momentary muscle failure was optimal to achieve the best results.

Such a set would encourage maximum muscle stimulation, and once this was achieved, any further activity would only draw on the body’s ability to rehabilitate without contributing to further results.

At the time, 10-12 different exercises were performed with one set of each made to momentary muscle failure.

The repetitions were made slowly compared with otherwise normal practice (2 sec. when lifting and 4 sec. when lowering).

Today we have better equipment, and it offers hardly any friction facilitating an effective implementation of the exercises when done in 10 seconds either way. This will increase the intensity considerably and means that personal and private training once a week is sufficient to achieve and maintain optimum results for the individual.

Added to that, are the Lower Back machine and all the related scientific research giving a whole new dimension to training.

On this canvas of scientific studies carried out on various patient groups as well as numerous normal, healthy performers of all ages from about 14 to 90+ – the concept has been defined as follows:

1)    Strength training of the large muscle groups in a time wise continuous
series of 6 exercises
.

2)    Each exercise is performed using 10 seconds of lifting and 10 seconds
of lowering.

3)    The movement in each exercise is repeated about  4 – 7 times), to reach voluntary muscle exhaustion. That is why each exercise takes between 1½ and 2½ minutes to complete.

4)    Increase the weight progressively until one can perform the exercise for more than 2½ minutes before reaching the momentary failure point, then increase the weight again by about 3-5%.

5)    The whole training session will then take less than 20 minutes in
total
.

6)    As the exercises are carried out very slowly and without jerks, muscles
and tendons do not require the usual warm-up. Likewise, stretching after the
exercises is not required either.

7)      As the individual muscle group will only work for a short while there
will be no significant development of body heat. Along with a low room
temperature (max. 20 degrees) and a working fan, the performer will enjoy a
“pleasant training climate” and, in addition, the muscles will work
more intensively.

Strength training – the most important !

Recent medical research has demonstrated that
strength training is the most effective way to achieve a healthier and fitter
body. And unlike other forms of exercise that can take their toll on knees,
ankles, hips, and shoulders, weight work, properly done, strengthens the
muscles, joints, bones, and connective tissues while improving your overall
health. In other words, the goal (and result) of strength training is to build
you up, not beat you up.

The muscular system is the largest organ in the body,
nourished and cleansed by the most extensive network of blood vessels. In fact,
because the major share of your body´s vessel (or vascular) system resides in
your muscles, keeping your muscular system healthy of necessity enhances your
vascular system. Contrary to common belief, most of our other organs, including
the heart and lungs, exist to serve your muscular system.

Outview: Perspective and Importance in the Future of Strength Training in the Field of Rehabilitation

Vert Mooney, M.D., San Diego

Professor of Orthopaedics UCSD, Medical Director Orthomed Center, San Diego

 

It is now recognized that chronicity of musculoskeletal pain is associated with inhibited motor function and a phenomenon called „deconditioning“. Under these conditions reoccurrence of pain inducing episodes with the usual life event of the „unguarded moment“ can be expected. Significant sudden changes in physical demands, either increased or decreased, are often associated with this phenomenon.

 

Physical therapy in the form of manual therapy and surface supplied modalities to decrease pain, often offer short-term relief. There is no documentation, however, that these forms of treatment to change the natural course of disease and recurrence. There is no consensus even as to the most effective pain diminishing physical therapy modality. One reason for the lack of consensus is our inability to measure the dose of the therapeutic modality, and objectively measure the results of treatment. On the other hand, resistance training is measurable and the results of training, aside from the subjective statement of diminished pain, are likewise measurable by strength and endurance testing. The use of equipment, however, is necessary to achieve measurement.
In our own studies, recurrence of pain complaint after completion of a strength training program on chronic back pain patients, all which had failed previous physical therapy, was 10 %. This is at 1-year follow-up. Other studies using more passive therapies quote recurrence rates of up to 50%.

 

The future of this form of treatment, Le. physical training, depends upon transfer of care responsibility to the patient away from the „healer“. This is not easy to accomplish and the duration of training necessary to have the desired insurance. The feasible solution for this dilemma is the medicalization of health clubs. In this environment, musculoskeletal disorders are treated as ailments not diseases, and physical therapy becomes physical training supervised by qualifield staff who are comfortable with treatment of musculoskeletal disorders ideally such facilities would have the back up of appropriate medical professionals. Nonetheless, the treatment theme will have to be the pleasure of self-care in a supportive environment of training. A key component of training must be however, feedback of measured performance which requires appropriately designed equipment.

Living Longer Stronger

Eilington Darden, Ph.D., Gainesville

 

The purpose of the Living Longer Stronger program is to provide middle-aged people with a course at action to rebuild muscle mass. An average adult in the United States , for example, loses one-half pound of muscle per year between the ages of 20 and 50. As a 50-year old, his or her body is 15 pounds less muscular than at age 20.

Rebuilding atrophied, weakened muscle entails proper strength training. Proper strength training requires an understanding of the concepts of exercise intensity, progression, form, duration, frequency, and variation. With correct application of the above concepts, an average adult can add from 3 to 4 pounds of muscle during an initial, six-week, strength-training program. Thereafter, the muscle-building results decrease by approximately 25 percent with each successive six-week training period.

 

Resarch shows that the typical 50-year-old man or woman can rebuild 15 pounds of atrophied muscle in 18 months. Accomplishing this feat will help this individual live a stronger, leaner, and more productive life.

The Effect of Weigth-Bearing Exercise on Bone Mineral Density: A Study on Female Ex-Athletics and the General Population

Dr. John Ethefington, London

St Thomas Hospital , London

 

The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to estimate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) as a consequence of exercise in female ex-athletes and age matched controls. Eighty-three ex-elite female athletes (67 middie and long distance runners, 16 tennis players, currently aged 40-65) were recruited from the original records of their sporting associations. Controls were 585 age matched females. The main outcome measures were BIVID of lumbar spine (LS) femoral neck (FN) and forearm, estimated by DXA scan. Levels of physical activity were assessed using a modified Allied Dunbar Fitness Survey scale and classified as a) Ex-athletes b)

Active controls ( > 1 hour of vigorous physical activity currently and in the past) c) Low activity controls with inconsistent or intermediate levels of activity d) Inactive controls (<15 minutes exercise per week). Results: after adjustment for differences in age, weight, height and smoking, athletes had greater BIVIDs than controls; 8.7% at the LS (95% CI 5.4 – 12.0, p< 0.001) and 12.1% at FN (9.0 – 15.3, p< 0.001). The benefits of exercise appeared to persist after cessation of sporting activity. Active controls (n = 22) had greater BIVIDs than the Inactive group (n = 347) : 7.9% LS (2.0 – 13.8, p = 0.009) and 8.3% FN (2.7 – 13.8, p = 0.004). The Low activity controls (n = 216) had an intermediate BMD. Tennis players had greater BMDs compared to runners; 12.0% LS (5.7 – 18.2 p = 0.0004), 6.5 % FN (- 0.2 – 13.2, p = 0.066). The BIVID of Tennis players’ dominant forearms were greater than their non-dominant forearms. In conclusion, regular vigorous weight bearing exercise of one hour or more per week is associated with an increase in BIVID within a normal population. This study confirms long term weight-bearing exercise as an important factor in the regulation of bone mass and fracture prevention.

Limited Range-of-Motion Lumbar Extension Strength Training

James E. Graves, Michael L. Pollock, Scott H. Leggett, David M. Carpenter, Cecily K. Fix, and Michael N. Fulton

 

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of limited rangeofmotion (ROM) resistance training on the development of lumbar extension strength through a 72° ROM. 33 men and 25 women (age = 30 ± 11 yr) were randomly assigned to one of three training groups or a control group (C; n = 10) that did not train. Training was conducted once per week for 12 wk and consisted of one set of 8­12 repetitions of variable resistance lumbar extensions until volitional fatigue. Group A (n = 18) trained from 72° to 36° of lumbar flexion; group B (n = 14) from 36° to 0° of lumbar flexion; and group AB (n = 16) from 72° to 0° of lumbar flexion. Prior to and after training, isometric lumbar extension torque was assessed at 72°, 60°, 48°, 36°, 24°, 12°, and 0° of lumbar flexion. Analysis of covariance showed that groups A, B, and AB increased lumbar extension torque (P 0.05) at all angles measured when compared with C. The greatest gains in torque were noted for groups A and B in their respective ranges of training but A and B did not differ from AB (P > 0.05) at any angle. These data indicate that limited ROM lumbar extension training through a 36° ROM is effective for developing strength through 72° of lumbar extension.

High Intensity Strength Training in Nonagenarians

Effects on skeletal muscle

Maria A. Fiatarone, MD; Elizabeth C. Marks, MS; Nancy D. Ryan, DT; Carol N. Meredith, PhD; Lewis A. Lipsitz, MD; William J. Evans, PhD

 

Muscle dysfunction and associated mobility impairment, common among the frail elderly, increase the risk of falls, fractures, and functional dependency. We sought to characterize the muscle weakness of the very old and its reversibility through strength training. Ten frail, institutionalized volunteers aged 90 ± 1 years undertook 8 weeks of highintensity resistance training. Initially, quadriceps strength was correlated negatively with walking time (r= ­.745). Fatfree mass (r=”.732)” and regional muscle mass (r=”.752)” were correlated positively with muscle strength.

Strength gains averaged 174% + 31% (mean ± SEM) in the 9 subjects who completed training. Midthigh muscle area increased 9.0% ± 4.5%. Mean tandem gait speed improved 48% after training. We conclude that highresistance weight training leads to significant gains in muscle strength, size, and functional mobility among frail residents of nursing homes up to 96 years of age.

Effect of Training Frequency and Specificity on Isometric Lumbar Extension Strength

Effect of Training Frequency and Specificity on Isometric Lumbar Extension Strength

James E. Graves, PhD, Michael L. Pollock, PhD, Dan Foster, BS, Scott H. Leggett, MS, David M. Carpenter, MS, Rosemaria Vuoso, MS, and Arthur Jones.

 

To investigate the effects of training frequency and specificity of training on isolated lumbar extension strength, 72 men (age = 31 ± 9 years) and 42 women (age = 28 ± 9 years) were tested before and after 12 weeks of training. Each test involved the measurement of maximum voluntary isometric torque at 72°, 60°, 48°, 36°, 24°, 12°, and 0° of lumbar flexion. After the pretraining teste, subjects were randomly stratified to groups that trained with variable resistance dynamic exercise every other week (1x/2 weeks, n = 19), once per week (1x/week, n = 22), twice per week (2x/week, n = 23) or three times per week (3x/week, n = 21); a group that trained isometrically once per week (n = 14); or a control group that did not train (n = 15). Analysis of covariance showed that all training groups improved their ability to generate isometric torque at each angle measured when compared with controls (P < 0.05).

There was no statistical difference in adjusted posttraining isometric torques among the groups that trained (P > 0.05), but dynamic training weight increased to a lesser extent (P < 0.08) for the 1 x/2 weeks group (26.6%) than for the groups that trained 1 x/week, 2x/week, and 3x/week (37.2 to 41.4%). These data indicate that a training frequency as low as 1 x/week provides an effective training stimulus for the development of lumbar extension strength. Improvements in strength noted after isometric training suggest that isometric exercise provides an effective alternative for developing lumbar strength.